American Indians saw their lands had diminished greatly from mid 1700’s to late 1800’s. The boundaries moved west of the Mississippi under the Indian Trade Intercourse Act of 1834. The United States government acted in good faith regarding Indian policies in writing; but contradictory in actions and beneficial to Non-Indians. European Americans wanted to move westward and monopolize all the land to the Pacific Ocean. The Indian nations were not going to willingly give up their land so the United States government signed treaties and passed multiple laws defining Federal Government/Indian Nation relations.
3 steps involved in the treaty process:
- The treaty is negotiated
- It is then ratified by the Senate
- It is signed by the President, then considered to be in force and is a law superior to local or state laws. The primary focus for the Untied States to obtain title to Indian land.
The negotiated treaties were a mutual signed pact that had to be signed by Congress.
THE END OF TREATY-MAKING 1871
In 1871, the House of Representatives added a rider to an appropriations bill ceasing to recognize individual tribes within the United States as independent nations “with whom the United States may contract by treaty.” This act ended the nearly 100-year-old practice of treaty-making between the Federal Government and Native American tribes.
This dramatic shift in Federal Indian policy came from a power struggle between the House of Representatives and the Senate over control of Indian affairs. The negative effects of the 1871 Indian Appropriation Act continued for nearly a century, until Federal Indian policy dramatically changed again, encouraging Native American tribes to exercise self-governance over tribal matters.
Broken Treaty of the Keystone XL Oil Pipeline – https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2014/11/21/1345986/-With-more-than-500-treaties-already-broken-the-government-can-do-whatever-it-wants-it-seems